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Cut a large “window” to the exact same side of all three of those cardboard boxes. Each window should be the exact same size, so you will want to use the ruler to measure and mark with a pencil before cutting. Don’t cut a window in the fourth box–this box will model a space which has no windows.
Cut curtains from both kinds of curtain material that will completely cover your plastic wrap window. Secure the thinner drape material set up with double-sided sticky tape across the inward-facing surface of one of the box windows. On the next box window, secure the thicker insulated drape material in precisely the identical way. For the next box, leave the plastic wrap window.
Pour the bottles of water out of the plastic bottles to the pot and ask a parent to bring the pot to a boil. Allow the water to cool slightly so that it will not scald if it splashes on you.
With your parents’ help, use the funnel to pour the hot water back to each of the bottles that about the same amount of water is in every bottle. Some water may have vanished when you boiled it, so the bottles won’t be completely full.
Insert a thermometer into each bottle and record the temperature reading on your laptop.
Eliminate the thermometers in the bottles.
Leave the boxes out in the night, preferably in a time once the sun is setting. Bear in mind, we are trying to ascertain how much heat each box loses, therefore we don’t need the boxes to cook in sunlight.
After three hours, open the boxes and have a temperature reading for all the bottles. Don’t forget to record the results every time you take a reading.
What do you notice about the length of time the bottles stay warm? Which boxes are more effective than others at keeping the heat in the bottle?
Any sort of window allows heat to escape, so the box with no window at all should have retained the maximum heat. But for the boxes with windows, a thicker cloth helps retain heat better than a thinner one. The box with no curtain should have dropped the most heat.
Sitting on a couch, you realize this convective motion as a cold draft and increase the thermostat. Instead, increase the temperature of the glass. Choose a number of glazings with low-conductance gas fittings, warm-edge spacers and thermally-resistant frames. They increase inboard glass temperatures, slow convection and enhance comfort.
A fantastic absorber is a fantastic emitter. Most wood stoves are black for a very good reason. You may feel a cooker’s radiant heat in your face across a space. Subsequently, your face feels cool as it radiates (emits) its warmth to a cold sheet of window glass. This uncomfortable sensation, like convection, persuades one to increase the thermostat. Low-“E” coatings emit less long-wave heating energy. In cold climates, more warmth stays in the home. In warm climates, the heat stays outside. Low-E coatings improve the insulating value of window about the same as adding another pane of glass into a unit. Therefore a double-glazed low-E window functions like a triple-glazed clear window.
Air leakage siphons about half of a typical home’s heating and cooling energy to the outside. Air leakage through and around windows is responsible for much of the loss. Well-designed windows have durable weatherstripping and high quality closing devices that efficiently block air leakage. Hinged windows such as casements and awnings clamp a lot more closely against weatherstripping than do sliding and double-hung windows. But well-made double-hungs are okay. Air leakage is also influenced by how well the individual parts of the window unit are joined together. Lowest values are greatest.
Letting Energy In
Well-designed windows block the flow of energy out of our conditioned indoor environment. But we don’t wish to block our whole supply of free solar power. In a cold climate we welcome the sun’s warmth and light the majority of the time. And once we catch the heat we do not need to give this up. In a warm climate we do not need the heat, but we do need the light.
This modern kitchen has been enriched with all the clean, contemporary lines of plastic windows.
Casement windows provide complete top-to-bottom venting, opening outward to permit fresh air inside. And they are a favorite option above kitchen sinks, or anyplace reach might be a problem.
These custom windows provide a view of the outdoors. The room can get uncomfortably warm, and UV rays can fade your own decor. Additionally, it reflects some of the light to protect furnishings.
Gone are the days when a homeowner’s interest in windows was confined to whether they could discover stylish window treatments. Today, energy-conscious homeowners wish to decrease the costs of heating and cooling their homes, and choosing the ideal windows is a vital step. Just how far should you go when picking energy-efficient windows? The important thing is knowing what window updates will provide you the biggest bang for the buck without delivering a blow to your bottom line.
There are four factors to consider when selecting energy efficient windows: frame, glass, design and setup.
Most individuals know a wood framework is not as prone to cold and heat transfer than an aluminum one, because metals run temperature far more easily than timber. But that does not mean wood is obviously the best option for a utility-bill-friendly window. There are an assortment of materials available for window frames, and each has positive and negative attributes.
Vinyl: Simply because vinyl is a more affordable material does not imply it must be “cheap.” A well-constructed, correctly installed vinyl window may be practical choice: budget-wise whilst still offering excellent energy efficiency measures through insulated glass and tight structure that reduces air leakage. Vinyl windows can be restricted in color choices, however, and the simple fact remains that some folks just don’t like the look of vinyl in their dwelling.
Wood: Wood windows give the best insulative value, even though they also require more maintenance than vinyl, wood-clad or aluminum frames. Due to the possibility of rot, they might not be the ideal option for extremely humid or moist climates. A well-built wood window will endure the test of time, however: many original wood windows in older homes are still in great shape as a result of the high quality cut and species of timber used, says Tamara Myers, president of Myers Constructs in Philadelphia.
Needless to say, when determining whether new windows will save you money, it is important to take into account the upfront costs. The cost per window can vary from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars, depending on the materials and features you select and cost of installation.
The choices you make concerning materials, design, glazing, and setup may have a big effect on your energy bill. And some features, like how easy they are to look after, make windows more attractive for different reasons.
Different window frame materials can affect the look, durability, and insulation of your window. By way of instance, wood-framed windows provide great insulation, but are heavy and high-maintenance. Vinyl-frame windows insulate well, and do not require painting.
The design of a window can impact how well your window insulates.
Particular window glazes and glass can provide better insulation, light quality, and rust resistance. By way of instance, windows with low-emissivity (low-e) coatings tend to be more energy efficient than windows.
Cleaning and Care
Some features and materials, like tilt-in sashes, make windows easier to look after.
If your windows aren’t installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions, you may not receive the savings or relaxation you expect.
Check the Label
Search for the National Fenestration Rating Council’s window tag when you shop. It can help you compare how well a window cubes heat, cold, and outside air; allows light in; and cubes condensation.
These evaluations measure how well a window cubes cold, heat and outside atmosphere:
In cold climate, start looking for a low u-factor score.
In warm climates, start looking for a low SHGC score.
Visible Transmittance ratings quantify how well a window lets light in:
The closer this number is to 1 the more mild the window lets in.
Lots of the agents used for biological and chemical attacks are aerosolized (eg, sarin, chlorine, or anthrax). Because children have quicker respiratory rates than adults, they’re vulnerable to comparatively greater doses and will undergo the effects of the agents far faster than adults. Kids will also possibly absorb more of this substance before it’s cleared or diffuses in the respiratory tissues. Many chemical agents, including certain gases like sarin and chlorine, have a high vapor density and are heavier than air, meaning that they “settle” near the earth, in the air space used by kids for breathing.
Many chemical and biological agents are absorbed through the skin. Because children have more surface area relative to body mass than adults and because young children, particularly those younger than 6 weeks, have more permeable skin, they get proportionally higher doses of agents that affect the skin or are absorbed through the skin. Additionally, since the skin of children is poorly keratinized, vesicants and corrosives result in greater harm to children than to adults. Another concern in children, due to the relatively large surface area in relation to body mass, is they shed heat fast when showered. Consequently, skin decontamination with water may lead to hypothermia unless heating lamps along with other heating equipment are used.
Kids have a higher minute ventilation, which contributes to greater internal exposure to radioactive gases. Nuclear fallout quickly settles into the ground, causing a greater concentration of radioactive material from the space where children live and breathe. Children have a significantly increased chance of developing cancer even if they’re exposed to radiation in utero.
Children are especially vulnerable due to physical developmental limitations. Babies, toddlers, and young children don’t have the motor skills to escape from the website of a chemical or biological incident. Even when able to walk, they might not have the cognitive ability to comprehend the presence of danger based on a terrorist event and for that reason may not find an escape or be able to determine in which direction to flee. Even worse, children might actually migrate toward the event out of curiosity to see the gasoline, colored representative, or other results.
Pediatricians should work collaboratively with public health departments and colleagues in associated professions to recognize and reduce barriers to the health and well-being of children in the communities that they serve.
Pediatricians can play an essential role in organizing and focusing new and present solutions to realize maximum benefit for all children.
Pediatricians and other members of this community should interact and urge to improve all organizations and settings where children spend some time (eg, child care centers, schools, youth programs). School and community resources should be regarded as resources in developing strategies for the issues that kids will face now and throughout their lives.
Pediatricians should nurture and advocate for local structures that encourage healthy families effective at promoting optimal health, security, and growth in their children.
Pediatricians should advocate improving the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare for many children, striving to make sure that each and every child in the area has a medical home.
Pediatricians should educate themselves regarding the availability of community resources which influence the health and well-being of the kids they serve.
Pediatricians have the exceptional opportunity to model roles beyond the traditional clinical roles that students and residents encounter. Pediatric academicians should use resources from the AAP and the Ambulatory Pediatric Association to engage the community pediatrician as a teacher, both in the care of individual patients at community-based clinic and in roles associated with promotion of their well-being of all children in the area. Community-based resources outside the boundaries of the traditional hospital and outpatient office setting should be used to educate residents from the impact of the community on child health status and the positive impact of interdependent cooperation of community agencies with caregivers on child health.
Medical student, resident, and continuing medical education programs should think about and occasionally review fundamental community pediatric competencies to be included in instruction and maintenance of certification efforts for pediatricians.
AAP chapters should provide direction, support, and recognition for pediatricians involved in advocacy efforts at the local, state, and federal levels to ensure that children have access to care and to foster integration of those activities as an essential part of the professional function and responsibility of their pediatrician.
Caring, compassionate, and knowledgeable pediatricians should address the needs of the patients and all children in the context of their community.
You can use acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) temporarily to help alleviate your distress.
See your doctor if you don’t get relief in a week, or earlier if you have severe pain or bleeding.
Based upon your signs and symptoms, your physician may refer you to one or more experts — including a physician with experience in the digestive system (gastroenterologist) or a colon and rectal surgeon — for treatment and evaluation.
You can help your doctor by being ready with as much information as you can. Here are some suggestions that will help you get prepared for your appointment.
Everything you can do
Be conscious of any pre-appointment limitations. At the moment you make the appointment, ask if there is anything you will need to do beforehand.
Write down any symptoms you are experiencing and how long you have noticed them.
Write down key personal information, including typical bowel habits and diet, particularly your fiber intake.
Make a list of all drugs, supplements or vitamins that you are taking.
Write down questions to ask your physician.
What’s the possible cause of my symptoms?
Is my condition going to be temporary or permanent?
Am I at risk of complications associated with this condition?
What treatment strategy do you recommend?
If remedies we try first do not work, what will you recommend next?
Can I be a candidate for surgery?
Are there any actions which may help?
I have other medical issues. How can these be managed by me ?
Besides the questions that you have ready to ask your doctor, do not be afraid to ask different questions during your consultation.
What to expect from the physician
Your doctor will probably ask you lots of questions. Getting prepared to answer them may book time to discuss points that you wish to spend more time.
How embarrassing are your symptoms?
What are your bowel habits?
What, if anything, seems to boost your symptoms?
Has anybody in your household ever had cancer or eczema of the colon, rectum or anus?
Have you ever had a change in your bowel habits?
During bowel movements, have you ever and your stools noticed blood on your toilet paper or blended?
Depending on the inherent danger of working with chainsaws, and according to the previous statistics, it is very important that employees exposed to chainsaw operations receive the proper education and skills training so they understand how to work skillfully, keeping themselves and their co-workers safe. Employees also have to be knowledgeable about applicable industry regulations and equipped to comply with approved work procedures. It’s crucial that management at all levels of any organization support security and skills instruction and training.
Why? It’s partially because most employees can manage to start a chainsaw and cut something without incident. Now we have both electric- and – battery-powered chainsaws which are simple to begin. While it’s great that such complex technology is present, this technology makes it easier for employees to operate chainsaws without proper education or training concerning the instrument or cutting trees.
Even with all these improvements, however, data indicates that more deaths and injuries are happening now during tree-related work tasks than ever before. So where and how can we be proactive and how can we get started?
Two Primary Factors
To start, it is important to comprehend how people make decisions and what kind of pressure operators might be below when using chainsaws.
There are two main factors at work here. The first is that all people come to our thinking and use of chainsaws with different educational backgrounds, different experiences and training with cutting edge tools, and many different tales, myths and mysteries that we have collected before and learned about from other folks. If there’s confusion, and if up-to-date knowledge, ability or expertise is lacking, there’ll also be a lack of critical thinking, decision-making and operational behaviors, and the possibility of injury will increase..
It’s a fact that the top-handle chainsaw does place both hands over the middle of mass, which makes it feasible to cut with one hand on the saw. But while this behavior might appear acceptable, in fact it does and can cause employees to get killed or hurt.
Students no longer need to crowd around a computer screen to see presentations, Web sites or coaching applications. Multimedia projectors are getting to be the centerpiece of classroom technology hubs that directly engage students and add effect to every lesson.
Identifying Classroom Needs
In the past, teachers had to accommodate projectors which were meant for business use. When educators wanted a mobile projector, they often settled for low picture quality, fewer connection options and a machine that could become really hot if run over long periods. However, when teachers wanted a projector to do at a high level for several hours, and might accommodate several connections, they probably settled for a massive machine stationed in a multimedia centre or other shared space where they needed to relocate their course for this lesson – which makes it impractical for everyday use. In both cases, these projectors were often tough to operate, requiring the aid of an audiovisual specialist. The fantastic news is that more goods are being introduced to meet specific classroom needs.
To have a better understanding of what educators, media and AV experts are searching for, Philips recently worked with Quality Education Data Inc. (QED) to survey 500 teachers and media specialists in U.S. public colleges to find out more about engineering and equipment trends in K-12 classrooms. Most importantly, the study found how tremendously teachers value multimedia projectors as essential classroom tools. In actuality, AV specialists who engaged predict a projector in each classroom over the next five years (see graph below).
Important Features and Classroom Software
Educators identified the following key characteristics as what they liked best when buying a projector, in order of the most important to them: image performance, resolution, long lamp life, merchandise portability, brightness, PC connections and silent operation. Other features considered crucial included overall projector functionality, ease of use, purchase price and cost of operation. In a nutshell, the analysis showed schools need cheap, high-performing, highly versatile and easy to use projectors.
All three of the vessels transport oxygen, blood, nutrients, and hormones to cells and organs. While arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the cells of the body, veins take oxygen-depleted blood from the tissues back to the heart, and actually have special valves which help them to achieve this directional flow. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and permit nutrients from the blood vessels to diffuse to the body’s tissues.
According to Eidson, these layers are called the tunica adventitia, tunica media, and tunica intima. The tunica adventitia is the tough outer layer of veins and arteries and is made mainly of connective tissues. The surface, tunica media, is all smooth muscle and elastic fibers. The innermost layer, tunica intima, comes from direct contact with blood as it flows through the vein. This structure consists of smooth cells and has a hollow centre called the lumen.
Each of the arteries, veins, and capillaries of a human child, stretched end to end, are estimated to wrap around the Earth about 2.5 days (the equivalent of approximately 60,000 miles). The quantity of blood vessels in a human adult would show our planet four times, equaling 100,000 miles, based on Eidson.
Capillaries are tiny–in their smallest, they are less than a third of the thickness of a human hair. But to actually put it into perspective, consider that when red blood cells flow through capillaries, “[they] need to travel through them one cell at a time at a single-file line,” Eidson says.
“Physicians followed an incorrect version of the circulatory system suggested by Greek physician and philosopher Galen of Pergamon from around the 2nd century CE until the 1600s,” Eidson says. According to a paper in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Galen believed there were two methods: one in which the liver, not the heart, generated blood which was dispersed from the body centrifugally, and yet another where blood vessels carried air from the lungs and more blood into cells. “Blood wasn’t seen to circulate but instead to slowly ebb and flow,” writer W.C. Aird wrote.